Artificial Intelligence – Part II


[Editor’s Note: Normally, we do not replicate the prefaces to the newsletters on the website; often they do not pertain at all to the article at hand. This issue must stand as an exception. Other than the text immediately following, it’s important to add here that the article below was not edited, though several spots would have garnered the editing pencil if I had produced this piece myself, nor did I add anything to it. We felt this experiment should stand as created, to document the state of the technology. The following foreword, however, opened the message on 4 December 2023:

“News articles abounded in the past week about the first anniversary of the release of ChatGPT to the public. The program, crafted by OpenAI, is an artificial intelligence sandbox that can find information, write articles, create code, and shoot the breeze. Shortly after it was unleashed on the world at large, we ran an experiment to see how well the program could write an article for the newsletter. You can read that issue by pointing your browser: here. I figured it was a good time to check in on the state of our future robot overlords. The following issue is Part II of this series on Artificial Intelligence.

The premise of the experiment remains the same as in 2022. Beyond this opening introduction, nothing is written by me or any other human, nor did I edit any of the text. Further, the imagery is also created by AI. Last year, the logo was produced by a program called NightCafe. At the time, it was the best at taking an image that already existed at making something new based on it. NightCafe’s aspect ratios do not seem to currently allow the proper sizing required for the newsletter’s logo, so we switched the production of the banner to Midjourney, the same program that produced last year’s in-body imagery. Since 2022, Midjourney has taken monumental leaps in the customizations one can make on images. Other than behind-the-scenes tinkering, can you see a difference between last year’s images and the ones in this article? Just as it was a year ago, most AI image programs remain awful at generating words as prompted (they are, perhaps, designed to do this). The banner above was supposed to read “The Mountains Are Calling.”

The similarities between last year’s ChatGPT article on mountains and this year’s are interesting. I expected the articles it wrote to feature more distinctions, though there are a few. What do you think about the ability of the program in 2023? How surprised are you when you compare and contrast the two? Let me know what you think via email.

Perhaps we’ll check in again in 2024, as long as the singularity has not yet occurred. For now, here’s Part II, where I asked ChatGPT to write an article about mountains:

Peaks of Wonder: Exploring the Majesty and Significance of Mountains

by ChatGPT

Mountains are among the most majestic and awe-inspiring features of our natural world. They rise dramatically above the surrounding landscape, offering a unique ecosystem, a rich geological history, and a wide array of recreational opportunities. This article aims to explore the multifaceted aspects of mountains, from their formation and ecological importance to the cultural and recreational roles they play in human society.

The Formation and Geology of Mountains


Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the Earth, leading to mountain formation. The most common types of mountains are:

  • Fold Mountains: Created by the folding of the earth’s crust, these are the most common type of mountain. The Rocky Mountains in North America and the Himalayas in Asia are prime examples.
  • Fault-Block Mountains: Formed when faults in the earth’s crust force some materials up and others down. The Sierra Nevada in California is an example.
  • Volcanic Mountains: These mountains form when molten rock (magma) from within the Earth erupts through the crust and piles up on the surface. Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount St. Helens in the United States are well-known volcanic mountains.
  • Dome Mountains: Formed when magma pushes the crust up but does not break through. The Black Hills in South Dakota are dome mountains.
Mt. Fuji - image by Midjourney

Ecological Significance of Mountains


Mountains are much more than just a scenic beauty; they are vital to our planet’s ecological health. They are home to about 15% of the world’s population and host about half of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. They act as water towers of the world, providing freshwater to over half of humanity. The diverse climates and isolated locations of mountains create a plethora of unique habitats for a wide range of species.

Climate and Weather Patterns


Mountains have a significant impact on climate and weather patterns. They act as barriers to air movement, which leads to varied climates on their windward and leeward sides. This phenomenon is known as the rain shadow effect, where the windward side receives ample rainfall, and the leeward side remains dry.

A hiker in inclement weather in the mountains - image by Midjourney

Human Interaction with Mountains


Historical and Cultural Significance


Throughout history, mountains have held significant cultural, spiritual, and religious importance for various societies. Many are considered sacred and are the sites of pilgrimages and rituals. For example, Mount Olympus in Greece was considered the home of the Greek gods, and Mount Kailash in Tibet is sacred in several religions, including Hinduism and Buddhism.

Mountain Communities


Mountain communities have adapted to the challenging terrain and climate. These communities often have unique cultural practices and knowledge, particularly regarding sustainable living and environmental protection.

Recreation and Adventure


Mountains offer numerous recreational opportunities. Hiking, skiing, climbing, and mountain biking are popular activities that also contribute significantly to local economies through tourism.

Fragile alpine ecosystem - graphic by Midjourney

Challenges Facing Mountains


Despite their majesty, mountains face several challenges:

  • Climate Change: Mountains are highly sensitive to climate change. Melting glaciers, changing ecosystems, and endangered species are some of the pressing issues.
  • Deforestation and Land Degradation: These activities threaten the biodiversity and the livelihoods of people living in mountainous regions.
  • Overexploitation and Pollution: Unsustainable tourism and mining practices are leading to environmental degradation in many mountainous areas.


Conservation Efforts


Conservation efforts are critical for the protection and sustainable management of mountain environments. These include:

  • Protected Areas: Establishing national parks and reserves to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystems.
  • Sustainable Practices: Promoting sustainable tourism and agriculture practices to ensure the longevity of mountain ecosystems and communities.
  • Research and Monitoring: Ongoing research is vital for understanding the impact of climate change and human activities on mountainous regions.
The Himalayas - image by Midjourney



Mountains are not just physical entities; they are a vital part of the earth’s ecosystem, a source of water, life, and an inspiration for millions. Their towering presence reminds us of the beauty and resilience of the natural world. As we face the challenges of the 21st century, it is imperative that we work to protect and preserve these magnificent structures for future generations. Through a combination of conservation efforts, sustainable practices, and a deeper appreciation of their role in our world, we can ensure that mountains continue to be a source of wonder, resources, and adventure for many years to come.

Further Reading and Exploration

OpenAI – Official Website

ChatGPT – Official Website

Midjourney – Official Website

NightCafe – Official Website

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